Thursday, September 3, 2020

Ebonics Essays - African American Vernacular English, Ebonics

Ebonics Ebonics The United States is loaded up with a wide range of ethnicities, societies, customs, dialects, and so forth. As far as anyone knows, our government funded schools are outfitted with classes, educators, educational plans and materials so as to instruct that piece of the understudy populace whose first language is some different option from the English language. Bilingual classes, transitional classes, ESL classes are only a couple of the projects that have been created to educate non-English talking understudies with the end goal for them to obtain the English language. In any case, there has been a language use among African American understudies; language that has not been analyzed intently nor recognized as of not long ago. Ebonics is named Black English or Black sounds, or Pan African Communication Behavior or African Language frameworks which begins from the West African dialects, for example, Ibo, Yoruba, and Hausa (Amended Resolution of the Board of Education, 1997. P. 1). During the hours of subjection, ebonics was additionally spoken as Gullah, which is a mix of West African dialects, and English. Ebonics is a term instituted by clinician Robert Williams, coming about because of the blend of two words, coal black and phonics so as to portray its tongue (The Daily O'Collegian Editorial Board. 1997. P. 1). The debate behind ebonics is whether it is really a language or and should it be told as an unknown dialect. Language is characterized as an arrangement of words shaped from such mixes and examples, utilized by the individuals of a specific nation or by a gathering of individuals with a mutual history or set of conventions (Microsoft Bookshelf. 1996-1997 version). Ebonics is a type of correspondence of sentiments, contemplations, feelings and thoughts at is being utilized by our understudies in the study hall who feel entirely good utilizing ebonics since they are acclimated with communicate in that manner. Because of numerous understudies utilizing ebonics in a school setting, it has been perceived in our instructive framework and it is accepted that the comprehension, the application, the standards, the laws and the structure of ebonics would support African American understudies (Amended Resolution of the Board of Education, 1997. P. 1). Ebonics would be utilized to help learn Standard English. Thusly, ebonics has been read throughout the previous 15 years because of the State of California perceiving the extraordinary language height of relatives of Africans (Amended Resolution of the Board of Education, 1997. P. 1). Therefore, the State of California is attempting to order instruction program that is in light of a legitimate concern for vindicating their equivalent security of the law rights under the 14 Amendment (Amended Resolution of the Board of Education, 1997. P. 2).'' The 14 Amendment states: All people conceived or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the purview thereof, are residents of the United States and of the State wherein they live. No State will make or implement any law which will abbreviate the benefits or resistances of residents of the United States; nor will any State deny any individual of life, freedom, or property, without fair treatment of law; nor deny to any individual inside its ward the equivalent insurance of the laws (Microsoft Bookshelf. 1996-1997). The Oakland school region is attempting to pass a program dependent on ebonics since it is viewed as that it will profit African American understudies in their first language. What's more, the Oakland school region accepts that if ebonics is these understudies first language that would make them bilingual and must get some type of bilingual instruction. Under the Bilingual Education Act (1968), affirmed by a Supreme Court choice (1974) and commanding assistance for understudies with restricted English capability, requires guidance in the local dialects of understudies. (Microsoft Bookshelf. 1996-1997). Oakland's anxiety depends on the result of the government sanctioned trial of perusing and language abilities among numerous African American understudies, as per the Amended Resolution of the Board of Education (1997), the scores on the government sanctioned test were beneath state and national levels. Notwithstanding the low state administered test scores, Wasserman (1997) contends that the evaluation point normal among African American understudies is D+. The program they imagined highlighted African American framework standards to move understudies from the language designs they bring to class to English capability (Amended Resolution of the Board of Education,

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Environmental Issus With Highway Expansion Essays - Lane

Natural Issus With Highway Expansion Gloria Stovall November 13, 2000 Group: John Gulick Extension of Highway 101 Since Highway 101 was finished in the mid 1960s, no enhancements or changes have been made and the interstate has not been contacted. As of late California transportation organizers gave the last endorsement to the primary development of Highway 101 in Santa Rosa. This raises some difficult issues inside the network. Despite the fact that the organizers have consented to this change, individuals in the network have contradictions. The progressions proposed comprise of including a carpool path in the two headings between Santa Rosa and Rohnert Park. There are issues raised with this proposition. Adding paths to the two sides of the thruway will broaden it, taking out trees and natural surroundings of the territory. In the event that these trees are evacuated, homes of creatures, for example, squirrels, fowls and bugs will be crushed. As the path augments, this takes into account more vehicles to go through. Vehicles are to some degree inconvenient to the earth. They cause contamination in the public arena that is ever developing. All the effects of the path extension lead to another. Gloria Stovall November 13, 2000 Faction: John Gulick At the point when the paths are included, more vehicles go through the zone, as was at that point said. With the expansion in vehicles, it will without a doubt lead to an expansion in populace. More individuals will go through Rohnert Park and Santa Rosa and see what decent neighborhoods are there. Be that as it may, these regions have very little space for extension. The urban areas themselves are very full and would not have the option to help a rapidly developing populace. In 1990, the number of inhabitants in Santa Rosa was at 158,352. From that point forward the populace has significantly increased. With such enormous development, the region has gotten increasingly clogged and along these lines so has the interstate traffic. Despite the fact that the populace in the territory has grown an extensive sum over the most recent ten years, there is certifiably not a lot of space for additional later on. It has taken about ten years for CalTrans to get to this point and it is still in progress of attempting prevail in the development. Gloria Stovall November 13, 2000 Organization: John Gulick Over the previous decade, there have been various endeavors to extend this zone of the thruway. Truth be told, CalTrans is still during the time spent acquiring licenses from the North Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board that are required before it can continue. Development has been deferred commonly all the while. Development was initially set to start October first of this current year yet has been pushed back to January first of 2001. Wright, an individual from the Sonoma County Transportation Authority says, It's not a serious deal. It's simply an issue of experiencing the legislative procedure when gotten some information about the postponement. Notwithstanding the ecological issues with the development, there are different reasons why residents in the zone don't need this to occur. One explanation is the ascent in deals charges for transportation. A factor that numerous workers won't be content with is the way that it is relied upon to take year and a half to finish the 4.8 miles of carpool paths, sound dividers, traffic metering lights and Gloria Stovall November 13, 2000 Order: John Gulick enhancements for a few on-ramps. It will be fairly a burden. It will no doubt hinder traffic for the year and a half during the development and cause numerous miserable suburbanites. Despite the fact that there will be a deferral with the start of the development, Wright said that CalTrans authorities hope to have the venture finished by its unique deadline of February of 2002. During the eighteen months of development there will more than likely be a major bother for the individuals who travel Highway 101 all the time. Workers should manage moderate traffic through the region. Another point that individuals of the network aren't anticipating is the cost of the venture. The whole thing will cost $23 million and won't be something that many need to pay for. Previously, arrangements were tried to bring down the limit for raising deals charges for transportation however this fizzled. Regardless of the Gloria Stovall November 13, 2000 Faction: John Gulick actuality that four neighborhood charge measures to enlarge Highway 101 bombed during the 1990s, the cash has been reserved

Friday, August 21, 2020

On The Methodology Of The Social Sciences †Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Examine About The On The Methodology Of The Social Sciences? Answer: Introducation In Sociology class is a sort of social delineation that is comprised of gathering of individuals with comparable status who are sharing sure degree of riches and influence. There are different conversations over the meaning of Class makes disarray and phrased issue. Anyway through some settled ideas we can attempt to characterize the social definition Class. In the abstract area Classes are characterized as the social classifications that are positioned inside the financial definition by sharing people groups emotionally notable characteristics (Landry 2016). As a target position class is characterized as a gradational idea dependent on the expectation for everyday comforts. In this manner past the abstract characteristics the relationship among salary assets can frame the class also. Following Marxist custom in the event that the social arrangement of imbalance is thought of, at that point the class can be characterized as a large scale level idea that proper and produce the financi al excess (Wright 2015). Weber has depicted status and class are two distinct structures and through the shapes the individual life possibilities (Scott 2014). The meaning of class can be put inside the political direction too where social change is at the middle regarding monetary assets and social connections. We as a whole are conceived in certain social classes and the class has extraordinary impact in our individual lives. This social definition makes us experience different points of interest and burdens and life possibilities. My individual social class has been enormously influencing my instruction, wellbeing, strict affiliation, political conduct, wellbeing, social inclusion and mentalities. It is commonly viewed as that if my societal position is higher than my future is longer, as we experience that needs identified with fundamental needs like food and asylum bring about high mortality. Humanist Weber has built up the idea of life risks as the open doors that we can apply to improve our personal satisfaction (Weber 2015). The existence chances guarantee better objectives that we can accomplish like standard advanced degree, carrying on with a solid life, effective profession. Anyway we can see that the existence chances are not similarly dispersed among the individuals from a soci al class. Our aptitude and capability turns into the most noteworthy driver for getting those life possibilities. In the event that I show signs of improvement instruction I will have the entrance to a superior way of life however getting quality advanced education is identified with my monetary status rather my folks money related status. On the off chance that I am having better monetary status I am almost certain get conceded in a non-public schools however somebody from the edges with constrained money related open doors probably won't stand to get affirmation in the tuition based school. In the realm of today the existence risks essentially rely upon the distinctions among different gatherings dependent on their winning, materialistic riches and position in the societys chain of command. In this manner the focal points and inconveniences are both being made all the while through our lives. Another impediment can be experienced with regards to dealing with violations. We have en countered commonly various individuals from various social classes get distinctive treatment regardless of whether both are experiencing comparative examination. My acknowledgment is that the individuals have a place with the lower layer of the general public are bound to get less life risks as social classes characterize and decide them. Reference Landry, B. ed., 2016.Race, sexual orientation and class: Theory and techniques for examination. Routledge. Scott, J., 2014.Stratification and force: Structures of class, status and order. John Wiley Sons. Weber, M., 2015.On the approach of the sociologies. Lulu Press, Inc. Wright, E.O., 2015.Understanding class. Verso Books.

Monday, June 8, 2020

Calculating the Probability of a Type II Error - Free Essay Example

Calculating the Probability of a Type II Error To properly interpret the results of a test of hypothesis requires that you be able to judge the pvalue of the test. However, to do so also requires that you have an understanding of the relationship between Type I and Type II errors. Here, we describe how the probability of a Type II error is computed. A Type II error occurs when a false null hypothesis is not rejected. For example, if a rejection region is as follows: xbar 127. 06 or xbar 132. 94 and the null hypothesis is false, then the probability of a Type II error is defined as = P(127. 6 xbar 132. 94 (given that H0 is false) The condition that the null hypothesis is false only tells us that the mean is not equal to 130. If we want to compute , we need to specify a value for . Suppose that we want to determine the probability of making a Type II error when, in actual fact, = 135, 131, 139, and/or any other value. A Windmill Example: The feasibility of constructing a profitable electricityproducing windmill depends on the average velocity of the wind. For a certain type of windmill, the average wind speed would have to exceed 20 mph in order for its construction to be feasible. To test whether or not a particular site is appropriate for this windmill, 50 readings of the wind velocity are taken, and the average is calculated. The test is designed to answer the question, is the site feasible? That is, is there sufficient evidence to conclude that the average wind velocity exceeds 20 mph? We want to test the following hypotheses. H0: A 20 HA: A 20 If, when the test is conducted, a Type I error is committed (rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true), we would conclude mistakenly that the average wind velocity exceeds 20 mph. The consequence of this decision is that the windmill would be built on an inappropriate site. Because this error is quite costly, we specify a small value for a, = 0. 01. If a Type II error is committed (not rejecting the nul l hypothesis when it is false), we would conclude mistakenly that the average wind velocity does not exceed 20 mph. As a result, we would not build the windmill on that site, even though the site is a good one. The cost of this error may not be very large, since, if the site under consideration is judged to be inappropriate, the search for a good site would simply continue. But suppose that a site where the wind velocity is greater than or equal to 25 mph is extremely profitable. To judge the effectiveness of this test (to determine if our selection of = 0. 01 and n = 50 is appropriate), we compute the probability of committing this error. Our task is to calculate when = 25. (Assume that we know that ( = 12 mph. ) Our first task is to set up the rejection region in terms of xbar. Rejection region: z z = z0. 01 = 2. 33 (look up 0. 9900 in Table) So we have z = (xbar-) / (/n) = (xbar-20) / (12/50) 2. 33 Rejection region: xbar 23. 95 Region where H0 is not rejected: xbar 23. 5 T hus: = P(xbar 23. 95 (given that = 25) = P{[(xbar-) / (/n)] [(23. 95-25) / (12/50)] = P(z -0. 62) = 0. 5 – 0. 2324 = 0. 2672 23. 95| 22| 1. 95| 1. 697| 1. 15| 0. 3749| 0. 8749| 23. 95| 22. 5| 1. 45| 1. 697| 0. 85| 0. 3023| 0. 8023| 23. 95| 23| 0. 95| 1. 697| 0. 56| 0. 2123| 0. 7123| 23. 95| 23. 5| 0. 45| 1. 697| 0. 27| 0. 1064| 0. 6064| 23. 95| 24| -0. 05| 1. 697| -0. 03| 0. 0120| 0. 4880| 23. 95| 24. 5| -0. 55| 1. 697| -0. 32| 0. 1255| 0. 3745| 23. 95| 25| -1. 05| 1. 697| -0. 62| 0. 2324| 0. 2676| 23. 95| 25. 5| -1. 55| 1. 697| -0. 91| 0. 3186| 0. 1814| 23. 95| 26| -2. 05| 1. 697| -1. 21| 0. 3869| 0. 1131| 3. 95| 26. 5| -2. 55| 1. 697| -1. 50| 0. 4332| 0. 0668| 23. 95| 27| -3. 05| 1. 697| -1. 80| 0. 4641| 0. 0359| This is the graph for associated with numbers from 18 to 32. 5: The probability of not rejecting the null hypothesis when = 25 is 0. 2676 (see above Figure). This means that, when the mean wind velocity is 25 mph, there is a 26. 76% probability of erroneously co ncluding that the site is not profitable. If this probability is considered too large, we can reduce it by either increasing or increasing n. For example, if we increase a to 0. 10 and leave n = 50, then = 0. 0475. Rejection region: (xbar-20) / (12/50) 1. 8 xbar 22. 17 22. 17| 24. 5| -2. 33| 1. 697| -1. 37| 0. 4147| 0. 0853| 22. 17| 25| -2. 83| 1. 697| -1. 67| 0. 4525| 0. 0475| 22. 17| 25. 5| -3. 33| 1. 697| -1. 96| 0. 4750| 0. 0250| 25 With = 0. 10, however, the probability of building on a site that is not profitable is too large. If we let = 0. 01 but increase n to 100, then = 0. 0329. 22. 796| 23| -0. 204| 1. 20| -0. 17| 0. 0675| 0. 4325| 22. 796| 23. 5| -0. 704| 1. 20| -0. 59| 0. 2224| 0. 2776| 22. 796| 24| -1. 204| 1. 20| -1. 00| 0. 3413| 0. 1587| 22. 796| 24. 5| -1. 704| 1. 20| -1. 42| 0. 4222| 0. 0778| 22. 796| 25| -2. 204| 1. 20| -1. 84| 0. 4671| 0. 329| 22. 796| 25. 5| -2. 704| 1. 20| -2. 25| 0. 4878| 0. 0122| 22. 796| 26| -3. 204| 1. 20| -2. 67| 0. 4962| 0. 0038| 22. 79 6| 26. 5| -3. 704| 1. 20| -3. 09| 0. 4990| 0. 0010| 22. 796| 27| -4. 204| 1. 20| -3. 50| 0. 5000| 0. 0000| Now both and are quite small, but the cost of sampling has increased. Nonetheless, the cost of sampling is small in comparison to the costs of making Type I and Type II errors in this situation. Another way of judging a test is to measure its power -the probability of its leading us to reject the null hypothesis when it is falserather than measuring the probability of a Type II error. Thus, the power of the test is equal to 1 . In the present example, the power of the test with n = 50 and = . 01 is 1 0. 2676 = 0. 7324. When more than one test can be performed in a given situation, we would naturally prefer to use the test that is correct more frequently. If (given the same alternative hypothesis, sample size, and significance level) one test has a higher power than a second test, the first test is said to be more powerful. To determine the appropriate sample size for specifi ed levels of the Type I and Type II Errors, consult the Text. - ASSIGNMENT: - - In the windmill example presented in class, the Beta and Power functions are computed for n = 50. Compute and display the Beta and Power functions for n = 25, n = 75, and n = 125. Display your results in no more than two graphs. - - Briefly discuss your results. -

Sunday, May 17, 2020

The Journey Of God s Work On Earth - 981 Words

I have often talked of faith as a journey. Our journey consists of many turns and twists, hills and valley. This journey takes us closer and, possibly, further from a true understanding of God. One thing is certain on our journey of faith; we can never come to a full understanding of God. With God, there is always mystery. That said, the hope of our faith journey is coming to a better and deeper understanding of God. These last several years in ministry have led me to deeper experiences with and a deeper understanding of God. One of the things I now understand about God at a deeper level is God’s propensity to use people in doing God’s work on earth. I knew this before my time in pastoral ministry, but in my ministry, I have seen this truth in action. I have watched as God used doctors and lawyers, children and adults, clergy and lay people to feed the hungry, house the homeless, and even offer compassion and care to those whose life experience told them no one cared. I have worked and ministered side by side with others serving as the hands and feet of God. I have also come to a deeper understanding of God’s abiding presence – especially in our suffering. During this last year, North Wood has experienced more than its share of tragedy. One family’s experience helped me understand God’s presence and God’s â€Å"peace that passes understanding† in a way I had not previously. Frank was diagnosed with a form of blood cancer in October of last year. He and his wife, Jeannie (chairShow MoreRelatedBig Fish, By Tim Burton Essay1750 Words   |  7 Pagesbetter understanding. The Odyssey is the story of Odysseus and his struggle to return home after the Trojan War. Along the way Odysseus battles mystical creatures and faces the wrath of the gods. While he s gone his wife Penelope and his son Telemachus fight off suitors vying for Penelope s hand and Ithaca s throne long enough for Odysseus to return. The Odyssey ends as Odysseus wins a contest to prove his identity, slaughters the suitors, and retakes the throne of Ithaca. Now the movie Big FishRead MoreJust As A Prior-Detailed House Plan Is The Only Medium,1453 Words   |  6 Pagesrate of progress is achieved or not achieved’ in the coarse of the houses construction. So is every person s prior-projected daily life faith walk and one’s respective relating to God, also the only medium. Which fac ilitates ‘the realization or measurement of whatever progress’ the person achieves or does not achieve, in the coarse of one s daily life faith walk and respective relating to God. Even in ordinary daily life commitments undertaken by any ordinary person, what facilitates the realizationRead MoreThe Symbolism of Water1381 Words   |  6 PagesThe Symbolism of Water Many works of literature use symbols to represent abstract ideas. One symbol that is commonly used is water. Water is a viable symbol because it is versatile. 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The more Tony sees of death in the little town of Guadalupe, New Mexico, the more he questions the Christian God and turns towards the golden carp, a pagan god of the river. Rudolfo Anaya is indicating that each man must choose his own religion and destiny, by depicting the changes Tony feels after the deaths of Lupito, Narciso and Florence. Beforehand, Tony never questioned his faithRead MorePerception of Death in the Play â€Å"Everyman Essay1101 Words   |  5 PagesEnglish medieval period. In the play, death is perceived as tragic and is intensely feared. The protagonist; Everyman, is a person who enjoys the pleasures of life and good company. When he is unexpectedly called by death to account to God for his actions on earth, he is thunderstruck. He is filled w ith sorrow and self-pity. He pleads with death to give him more time, but death informs him it is impossible and that man cannot escape the reality of death. Faced with this eventuality, Everyman desperatelyRead MoreMy Dear, And Loving Husband1656 Words   |  7 Pagesthe love is connect between the heaven and the earth; love is a symbol of heaven and love can defeat all challenges and temptations. Obviously, this poem unveils about Bradstreet as truthful religious woman, who is dedicated their life to God. (Furey) Moreover, her setting story refer to her personal life, as a mother, a wife, and a puritan woman, who emigrates from England to Massachusetts. In addition, her poem layouts a perfect video about the journey of her married, from the day her husband andRead MoreKnowing God s Will And His Purpose And Plans For Our Lives850 Words   |  4 Pagesknowing God’s Will is a reflection of our Christian journey for allowing God to use us. As God begins to direct our path daily it will show in our character in our morals, in how we relate to other, in our pray life, a real desire to love all people, our personality will be a representation of the Lord, the way walk is different, the way and talk differently.As I read the book Knowing God’s will, I have gained a better understanding of how God wants me not to be. The book spoke about the criticalRead MoreMonotheistic Relationship Between Creator And Creation1509 Words   |  7 Pagespolytheistic traditions. Although these relat ionships between the creations and their god(s) have proven some similarities. The relationships the creation has with their creator have been seen to have guidance to a task. In the monotheistic relationship between â€Å"god† and creation have lessons of man and their journeys of hardships with the help of gods guidance. The polytheistic traditions have been proven as well that the gods have had helped them through their hardships by being guided and being favoredRead MoreThe Old Testament Of God868 Words   |  4 Pagestheir temple, ending around 400 BC. It tells the story of God s chosen people, the Hebrews, who were later known as Israelites or Jews. The Old Testament presents their testimony and interaction with God during this time. Body In the beginning of time, God created the heavens and the earth and everything that filled them. Following the creation was the fall of man with Adam and Eve bringing sin and death upon the earth and themselves. God made a covering for them indicating that it was only through

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution Essay

The period of 18th and 19th century is marked by the greatest transformations, reformations, revolutions and many other critical events that ever took place in human history. The credit is given to all these revolutions for enlightenment of mankind. The two most important revolutions were the French revolution and the industrial revolution. One can feel that both of these revolutions mutually reinforced each other and later became the back bone of all other revolutions. On the other hand, both revolutions had totally different impacts and consequences at various economical, political and social realms. The development of the industrialisation is outcome of the advancement of agriculture. Agriculture has played very important role in the†¦show more content†¦The high production lowered the cost of the food and raised the standard of life. On the other hand, small farmer and peasant class was unemployed as they lost their land to rich landholders. There was increase in the la bour force. It seems that socially and economically England possessed everything needed to fuel the industrial revolution. Also, the cottage industry of England was not able to fulfill the demands of increasing population. The ratio of demand to supply increased tremendously as population doubled in less than half century. Therefore, people began to focus on the ways to improve the cottage industry. In 1765 cotton spinning jenny was invented by a carpenter named James Hargreaves. At the same time, Richard Arkwright invented the water frame in 1768. These two inventions triggered the production of the cottage industry and cotton became cheaper and affordable to all classes. The real breakthrough comes when James watt invented steam engine in 1776 which made possible the establishment of coal and iron factories to more suitable areas. Initially, steam engines were used for pumping water out of coal mines and in iron industry to create draft in blast furnaces. Steam power was efficie ntly applied to transportation, agriculture, and other technological sectors. In 1856, Henry Bessemer invented Bessemer Convertor that converted iron into cheaper and durable steel. Steel productionShow MoreRelatedThe Industrial Revolution And The French Revolution1264 Words   |  6 PagesBoth the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution induced great social transformations from the end of the 18th century on. The revolutions laid the foundation for the journey of modernization for Great Britain and France. Although the two countries were merely separated by the English Channel, the relatively low degree of pre-industrial international communications hindered the interaction of both events. 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There was political tumult during this period due to the French revolution and the Industrial revolution. This compelled the poets to search for peace and solace in their own idealist worlds. They escaped into their utopian lives where they could experience freedom and happiness. The major poets of romanticism are William WordsworthRead MoreThe Social Conditions Of The 19th Century Essay1320 Words   |  6 Pagesfollowing the French and Industrial Revolutions. These world changing events are mostly causing plagues for the working class. These 19th century conditions cause the people to rev olt against the social reforms of the existing world and reveal the need for a new social structure. The newly emerging Industrial revolution results in a shift within economic classes, which are the bourgeoisie and proletariat. The 19th century’s conditions are a result of the Industrial Revolution, French Revolution, and UrbanizationRead MoreAmerican and French Revolution - Essay1419 Words   |  6 PagesAmerican and French Revolutions declared that their goal was to create a new political system based on the principles of liberty and equality. However, the interpretation of those ideas by the American Founding Fathers turned out to be distinctly different from that of the French revolutionaries. How did those different interpretations of the concepts of liberty and equality affect the outcomes and the legacies of both revolutions? Analyze, compare, and contrast. The American Revolution officiallyRead MoreThus, Great Britain, the first of the world countries endured industrial revolution, to the middle900 Words   |  4 Pages Thus, Great Britain, the first of the world countries endured industrial revolution, to the middle of 19 century turns into the most powerful power possessing the biggest colonial empire which allowed to provide own industry with necessary and cheapest raw materials, and also an extensive sales market of finished products.Orientation of the major branches of production, and in particular textile, on the colonial market will have an adverse effect subsequently on economic development of Great BritainRead MoreThe Causes And Effects Of Europe945 Words   |  4 Pageshistory will reveal a constant theme of revolutions and counterrevolutions across space and time that have shaped the very foundations of societies across the expanse of the continent. Furthermore, these revolutions occurred in many different spheres of daily life. For instance, some revolutions featured prolonged periods of violent political upheaval while others featured a more subtle revolution, changing the very social fabric of Europe. In addition, some revolutions centered on economic change while

Transforming System Requirements into Model Checking Specifications

Question: Discuss about A systematic approach to transforming system requirements into model checking specifications? Answer: Summary The software industry has been afflicted by the volatile, ambiguous, inaccurate and incomplete requirements since its emergence. The confluence of formal methods and development based on model proposes innovators of the critical-safety systems a strong and a new access for the validation of necessities at the early stage. This particular paper explains a case study that had been conducted to adjudicate if the use of formal methods could validate the system requirements at a reasonable cost in the lifecycle. Quite a few safety and functional requirements were captured for logic of Flight Guidance System (Aceituna, Do and Srinivasan 2014). They were written in natural language or shall statements. The model was formally written in RSML language. Several errors were identified in both the RSML as well as the original language. This proved that the formal models can be used for writing realistic or sensible systems and they can also be used to identify the errors before the implementatio n of the process. Opinion It can be said that the creation of RSML model has enhanced the informal requirements and this process involved in verifying the formal properties helped in identifying the errors in both the RSML model and the original requirements. In real systems, there would be many requirements of these models. As a result, the models would be large as well as complex. These models need to be organized to be robust and readable in the changing phases and need to be reused. It is learnt that there are two known styles of the process of formal specification constructive and axiomatic specification styles (Lobet et al. 2015). Both the styles have advantages as well as disadvantages depending on the process of usage of the specification styles. However, the present day use of the tools of formal method is very useful, it can be used to solve the industrial problems, and they can be quite productive. Limitations The most important limitation of the system is the cost effectiveness. The initial experiments of the process of formal verification have been quite costly because of the use of techniques such as proving of theorem, which required significant time as well as expertise. The maximum cost was incurred on the creation of the RSML model of the Flight Guidance System. On the other hand, the constructive specification style has a disadvantage. It makes the readers biased towards a specific implementation (Yu and Lau 2012). Similarly, a specification, which is property oriented or axiomatic, can be more difficult and problematic to understand as well as write. Conclusion and Recommendations It is a very useful system and can be practically used. Therefore, the cost incurrence can be ignored keeping in mind the advantages of the system. The constructive system can be used in the basic programming languages such as Ada and C. It can be used for future use with few recommendations. Stronger techniques of abstraction will be required to decrease or reduce the problems and they can be further verified with the use of model checkers. The models need to be modified to identify the proof properties and strategies that can have an automatic generation from the model. References Acceituna, D., Do, H. and Srinivasan, S., 2014, May. A systematic approach to transforming system requirements into model checking specifications. InCompanion Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Software Engineering(pp. 165-174). ACM. Lobet, G., Pound, M.P., Diener, J., Pradal, C., Draye, X., Godin, C., Javaux, M., Leitner, D., Meunier, F., Nacry, P. and Pridmore, T.P., 2015. Root system markup language: toward a unified root architecture description language.Plant Physiology,167(3), pp.617-627. Yu, Y.T. and Lau, M.F., 2012. Fault-based test suite prioritization for specification-based testing.Information and Software Technology,54(2), pp.179-202.